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万能思路,如何“万能”?

来源:新航道 原创作者:新航道河北学校 浏览:0 发布日期:2019-04-30 16:13

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作者新航道河北学校-高明阳:万能思路,相信同学们都有储备,然而在真正托福口语考试的时候,大家普遍难题还是--思路在手,却不知该如何出手。如何让万能思路变得真正“万能”?今天在这里,就如何展开语料跟大家分享三种有效的方法:“因果”,“分情况谈论”和“举例子”。接下来,让我们以一道托福口语题目为例,展开今天的方法论:

1 巧用因果

1.1联想背景构原因

       假设我们的观点是 Price is the most important factor, 当不知道如何展开的时候可以思考认为价钱很重要的原因,此时不妨联想自己的背景-身为学生,没有赚钱能力,所以可以展为:I am a student and cannot make a living by my own,

so that I prefer to choose the cheap restaurant

 万能思路,如何“万能”?

1.2顺势而为推结果

       原因展开后,我们顺势而为,进一步推省钱的结果,即省下的钱可以用来做什么:the more valuable money can be saved for doing other things,

such as book expense.

1.3 思路应用:

       同样,在题目which technology has made the greatest impact on people’s life in your country: airplanes, computers or televisions. Use specific reasons and examples to support your response.”中,

假如我们的思路是 computers will be more effective,那可以将利用原因结果的方法将其扩展为:身为学生,作业很多,每天需要搜集很多讯息,使用互联网可以短时间内可以查到信息,而不需要预约问老师,所以省了很多时间做其他的事情,即

As a student, I have a lot of assignments on schedule to do every day and I need to acquire a lot of knowledge and information to finish those tasks. Browsing online is an effective way to search for information. With various kinds of information available on the internet, it is easier for me to get access to the resources I want within in a few minutes. Consequently, it is not necessary for me to make appointments or wait until office hours to meet their professors so that more valuable time can be saved to get more work done.”

 

2 多情况分析

2.1 分情况讨论

       1.11.2中我们给出的观点之一是save money,然而便宜餐厅只是众多餐厅中的一种,为了扩展语料,当我们讨论完便宜的餐厅省钱后,很容易想到另一种情况--贵的餐厅浪费钱, 并运用原因结果的方法,将其扩展为:

While those high-end restaurants with delicate decoration are a good place to dine, but they always make you spend more than normal, because they are not cheap to build and maintenance and running cost are higher so that if they want to make money, they have to charge more than normal restaurant.

2.2 思路应用:

       在题目What is the most efficient type of transportation in your country? Explain why you think it is efficient. Include specific reasons or examples. 中,我们可以对多种交通工具进行多类别谈论,这样不管我们选哪种交通工具,都有话可谈。

In China, the most efficient type of transportation is the train because it is stable enough to keep going in bad weather like a heavy rain or snow storm which usually impede the airplane, bus and automobile.

 

3 善用例子

3.1 细节和例子

       第三种方法就是用例子对观点进行拓展。在讲此方法之前,我们需要明确区分两个概念:细节和例子。根据韦伯字典,细节是指“a particular fact or piece of information about something or someone”,例如我们上文提到的“the more valuable money can be saved for doing other things, such as book expense”. 这里的“such as expense“就是细节而不是例子。

 “而例子是 “an instance (such as a problem to be solved) serving to illustrate a rule or precept or to act as an exercise in the application of a rule.” 通俗来说,例子比观点更进一步,是对观点进行的平行且更具体的展开,一般包含我们通常说的叙事6要素:when/where/what/ how/who/why

可以看出,例子并不等同于细节,例子可以包含很多细节,例如6要素,也可以只有3要素,4要素。而有很多细节,也不一定是在举例子。

3.1.1思路应用:

       还是以“the most important factor to choose a restaurant“这道题为例:

如果我们的观点是 Restaurant atmosphere is the most important factor, 这句话里不包含细节,也不包含例子。

如果我们说:Restaurant atmosphere is the most important factor including the light condition, walls decorations. 这句话里包含细节,但不包含例子。

如果我们说:Restaurant atmosphere is the most important factor including the light condition, walls decorations. For example, I often go to a restaurant named “happy time”, it has bright light, beautiful decorations, comfortable chairs, which makes me feel relaxed and comfortable. 这句话里既有例子,又有细节。

although it is located in a remote area, far away from my home, and I even have to transfer for several times.

ETS 很多题目都都要求Use specific reasons and details to support your ideas.

区分细节和例子,有助于我们更好的想出符合官方考试要求的答案,并且减轻我们的压力。时间紧迫,如果在考场上想不出例子,那可以用展开细节的方法;如果想不出细节,则可以想一个简单的例子。

3.2 展开例子

现在,我们具体看一看展开例子的方法:

3.21 展开例子之前后对比

       仍然以“the most important factor to choose a restaurant“这道题为例:

如果我们的观点是 I like the considerate service most.

例子为:Last week, I went to a western-style restaurant and what impressed me most was their excellent service. 展开的例子的时候可以思考在接受服务之前是什么情况,接受服务后是什么感受:

At first, I didn’t know everything that was on the menu or to know exactly what wine could be paired with what food. But the restaurants had waiter specifically assigned to our table and the waiter were trained to know the menu through and through, and the trained staff were happy to explain and answer any of my queries. That was really a great experience for me.

 

3.22 展开例子之数字说话

       2.1分情况讨论中,“While those high-end restaurants with delicate decoration are a good place to dine…hey have to charge more than normal restaurant.

如果后面想举例子,可以考虑用具体的数字表示价钱提高说服力:For example, I can buy a fast restaurant burger for about 2 dollars, while a burger in a high-end restaurant would cost me 10 dollars.

 

3.23 展开例子之正反对比

       3.1.1思路应用之既有细节,又有例子的句子中我们提到Restaurant atmosphere is the most important factor including …which makes me feel relaxed and comfortable. ”,答题时如果时间还有剩余,可以考录用正反例的方法将其展开,即经常去的餐厅 VS 不经常去的餐厅。添加适当细节,拓展为:

For example, I often go to a restaurant named “happy time” …which makes me feel relaxed and comfortable, although it is located in a remote area, far away from my home, and I even have to transfer for several times. By contrast, I never go to the restaurant near by my campus, because it looks shabby.

       以上是三种方法的讨论和使用,篇幅有限,不能一一赘述,不知同学们是否可以管中窥豹。更多方法和思路应用,尽在新航道托福口语课堂。

       在这生机盎然的三月,经过托福口语的洗礼,我们一起“等闲识得东风面,万紫千红总是春”。

 

参考文献:

新托福口语真经5

Merriam Webster Dictionary

新编剑桥商务英语(初级)

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